๐Ÿ—๏ธDione EVM Chain Buildout

This page will discuss our go-forward approach for the Dione EVM Blockchain buildout.

Avalanche Layer 1 Base Layer & Layer 2 Protocol

Dione has selected Avalanche as its base layer fork decision. Avalanche (AVAX) has proven to be a clear winner as a contender to Ethereum in regard to speed, security, scalability, and interoperability - in addition to aligning with Dione's business use cases.

Top Throughput Speed: 4,500 - 6,500 transactions per second (TPS) to millions depending on subnet setup and architectural customized requirements. To put this into perspective, Ethereum as a Layer 1 would only be able to provide up to 27 (TPS) at the time of this writing. This allows the Dione Chain the ability to have large network transactional bandwidth with lowered wait time. Security: Traditionally, more validators equal better security as there are more transaction confirmations required in order to successfully complete a transaction. This is configured per chain and typically aligns with the business use cases of the project. Ethereum for example has exceeded 500,000 validators as of January 2023. Typically, (but not a rule of thumb) as a project/chain grows so does the number of validators because you have ecosystem "buy-in". More people choose to contribute to the security and stability of the network so they contribute resources to ensure the network can facilitate reliable transactions in a timely manner. Dione's chain will facilitate a mixture of retail validators that can "apply" to become a trusted validator in addition to the automatic opportunity for larger partners, grid operators, and resellers to partake in the integrity of the chain. We believe that all who partake in the chain, should also share in the success of its growth. Scalability: Dione has chosen a Layer 2 protocol as its scalability solution. The Layer 2 protocol in contrast to Layer 1 is night and day. Layer 2 provides an overlay to the base layer (Avalanche blockchain fork) to reconcile transactions without interfering with the Layer 1 blockchain code. Essentially it is a "vehicle" for multiple microtransactions to confirm without wasting time with miner verification and paying unnecessary transaction fees. This allows the network to perform more efficiently and "cheaply" than a traditional Layer 1 protocol. Avalanche also allows us the ability to split up heavier traffic by creating side chains or what is called "subnets". Subnets are essentially an extension of the blockchain but modularized to handle increased network traffic for specified components of the business. Development Community: By utilizing "tried and true" technology and not jumping on the latest "shiny new tech" we will be able to harness the power of a rock-solid development community when building out our blockchain. Many issues with trying to "pioneer" some new technology for a chain is you are essentially a "Guinea Pig". You are putting your holders or those who support your project at a much greater risk of failure. New, shiny technologies typically have very small development communities and accurate documentation. This means if there is some new feature or a feature that every other chain uses but it is not compatible with your configuration, then you are fighting an uphill battle to expand your network presence and utility. This can lead to a much more expensive and slowed deployment of your chain that most likely will not come with all the "bells and whistles" that other chains that fork EVM get to enjoy. Crypto is a very quick-moving space and a lot of changes in 1 year if a product is not deployed and your value proposition is decreasing because of new technology and user adoption. Interoperability: In addition to the above scalability performance enhancement Layer 1 provides, there is a giant leap in interoperability performance as well. Interoperability essentially means the ability for assets on one chain or ecosystem to seamlessly move, share data or interact with other chains or ecosystems without much friction or complex development. This gives chains that implement a Layer 2 protocol an edge above other chains that don't use Layer 2, in attracting new Dapps and projects to build upon the network. Many new projects find it attractive to build upon secure, low-cost, and interoperable chains. This is because the project's Dapps/products will be able to seamlessly move and interact with other ecosystems with little to no friction and save project leaders exorbitant development funds by limiting the cost of building customized cross-chain solutions. This ability to move freely allows the project more exposure and utility without being confined to one ecosystem. This is another big reason why Dione has chosen to utilize EVM within its chain as well rather than "reinventing the wheel".

At the time of this writing the top 53+ chains in the world are some sort of EVM fork. It's no surprise why, most networks value the ability for their projects and Dapps to be compatible with other ecosystems for maximum utility and exposure.

Dione Consensus Algorithm

Dione has selected a customized Proof of Stake (PoS) consensus. Unlike PoW, Dione's chain will not rely on miners for transaction integrity and validation. We believe in more energy-efficient solutions to tackle real-world utility and this will be a mainstay in our project's ethos.

Why Proof of Stake? We have all heard of many different types of Consensus Algorithms (i.e Proof of Authority, Proof of Work, Proof of Elapsed Time, Proof of Delegated Stake, Proof of Capacity, Proof of Importance, Proof of Burn, Proof of Activity etc. However, after in-depth research and comparative analysis of what Dione sets out to accomplish, PoS always emerges as the #1 clear winner. Here's why. Energy Efficiency: Computations for problem-solving do not require a lot of energy in contrast to other Consensus Algorithms, especially PoW. Decentralization: PoS leads to more nodes active on a network which promotes a far greater reduced risk of centralization. This is also a big reason why other Consensus Algorithms like "Proof of Delegated Stake" was not selected. DPoS can lead to a "cartel-like" formation and undermine the decentralization and therefore the integrity of the network. Security: Security for a PoS is insulated and tried and true. The well-known 51% attack on a Network becomes much more complex and costly to carry out which deters many attackers from attempting and succeeding because of the higher decentralization formation of nodes. Lower Cost: Since PoS is less energy intensive that leads to lower overhead in cost for computational power to solve complex math equations and therefore incentivizes more participation from the community, prospective projects, and partners.

Dione Chain Technical Architecture

Avalanche (AVAX) is the chosen base layer 1 and Dione will be a forked version of an AVAX base layer 1 with a forked ETH scalability Layer 2 solution. Below is a summary of the Dione technical documents and repositories associated with this fork.

Introduction: Dione Protocol is an open-source L1 Blockchain which is a fork of Avalanche Blockchain Network.

Platform: Dione Protocol is a heterogeneous network of blockchains. As opposed to homogeneous networks, where all applications reside in the same chain, heterogeneous networks allow separate chains to be created for different applications.

The Primary Network is a special Subnet that contains all validators (including validators of any custom Subnets). A node can become a validator for the Primary Network by staking Dione tokens.

The Dione Protocol uses Avalanche Snowman Consensus Protocol as Primary network and Subnets consensus.

Virtual Machines: Dione Protocol allows developers to implement their Dapp in the language of their choice using the Virtual Machine (VM) framework. VMs define blockchains, and serve as application-level blueprints for how blockchains are created.

Developers can implement VMs in any language, and use libraries and tech stacks that they're familiar with. Developers have fine control over the behavior of their blockchain, and can redefine the rules of a blockchain to fit any use case they have.

Validators: All Dione Protocol validators as members of the Dione Protocol primary network are required to run three VMs:

Coreth: Defines the Contract Chain (C-Chain); supports smart contract functionality and is EVM-compatible. Platform VM: Defines the Platform Chain (P-Chain); supports operations on staking and Subnets. Dione VM: Defines the Exchange Chain (X-Chain); supports operations on Dione Native Tokens. Validators are able to install additional VMs on their node to validate additional Subnets in the Dione ecosystem. In exchange, validators receive staking rewards in the form of a reward token configured by Subnets.

Consensus: Dione Protocol utilizes Avalanche Snowman Consensus Protocol as the Primary network and Subnets consensus. (i.e sidechains)

Consensus Algorithm:

preference := pizza
    consecutiveSuccesses := 0
    while not decided:
    ask k random people their preference
    if >= ฮฑ give the same response:
        preference := response with >= ฮฑ
        if preference == old preference:
        consecutiveSuccesses++
        else:
        consecutiveSuccesses = 1
    else:
        consecutiveSuccesses = 0
    if consecutiveSuccesses > ฮฒ:
        decide(preference)
```

## Changelog
- Forked Avalanchego, coreth, subnets repos
- Updated Imports
- Updated Chains config
- Updated Readme files, Documents

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